Two Essay


1.)          Please explain how public policy is formed in the American system of government. How is the problem identified? Who is responsible for determining solutions or setting the public policy agenda?

Public policy is an important process which provides ways of solving internal problems or ensuring that both government systems are run appropriately to the benefit of all American citizens. The process is composed of four main steps. The fast step is identifying a problem in which the existence of an issue is recognized. Step two is the formulation of a policy in which the policy is framed in a manner that will influence the government to respond in a certain manner. The issue goes through debates in which interest groups, executive branch officials and members of the Congress come up with various solutions regarding the problem. The third step is the adoption or implementation of the policy. This is when the federal government selects one policy solution from the many proposals arising from the debates and passes laws that will see the adoption of the new policy. Lastly, the policy is evaluated through judging it as soon as it is put into effect. A feedback is obtained is obtained from the people directly affected by the policy, the bureaucrats whose duty is to foresee the implementation of the policy and from reporters and pundits who are concerned about the policy.  .


Policy formation becomes necessary when an issue has become a major concern to a significant number of people. The problem may also be identified by public or elite opinion rising indicating their dissatisfaction on existing policy. The government is put to task to take advantage of an existing or opportunity or to make the administration appreciate that there is dissatisfaction with a given policy. Problem identification has perception and definition phases. The former involves interpretation of events and giving meaning to prevailing events.  The issue thought to be a problem is brought up by interest groups which comprises of experts and leaders who establish the problem. The policy making body such has the U.S. House of representatives or a local City Council which are legislative bodies or an administrative agency such as a local Health Department or  Department of Energy have the mandate of determining which issue is to be part of the public policy agenda consequently the solution to the issues raised (Biggs & Helms, 2007).

Setting the agenda is limited to the president since his office is the key initiator of the national public policy agenda. Close to the president is the Congress. Before a policy gets to the president, the Congress has to ratify most of the proposals in the policy. Both the micro and macro national agenda is controlled by the president of the United States of America. By so doing, he enjoys the full mandate of determining the solution to the public policy or to a prevailing problem. He or she however does this not alone but with a team of experts. This primacy claimed by the U.S. President in determining the direction a policy should go is only an autocratic role of the President. The former Presidents of America especially since the Great Depression rose to the positions after they installed new policy directions. They began with identifying a policy thrust, ensured that the support they mobilized was sufficient, formulated a plan and finally there was an implementation of a key thrust of what people needed the American public policy (How Is The Agenda Set, n.d)




2.) Discuss the impact of thousands of lobbyists in Washington DC and the billions of dollars spent every year lobbying government officials.  How does lobbying affect the process of making public policy?  Explain.

America’s Capital, Washington DC is infiltrated with thousands of lobbyists whose main aim is to push for various agenda which their clients have desired the government to do for them. Majority of the issues are related to rights of certain interest groups while others are business ventures while others are just political instigated to bring opponents down. For instance, between 1995 and 1997, Microsoft had a wide network of lobbyists through whom he heralded his political views. The congresspersons are the most targeted individuals in the Washington DC although executive agency official have not been left out. There have been efforts to lure the government through the lobbyists to make decisions that are favorable to their clients. As a result, issues which should take the shortest time to solve or to come up with policies are highly politicized and enormous amount of time is lost through pressing officials to decide on certain legislations. Lobbying is actually a widespread activity which is controlled by a few well-connected individuals who understand their way around the halls. Other firms whether new or old intending to join lobbying find it extremely difficult due to various existing barriers. Corporations have been spotted to be the biggest spenders in the lobbying activities in Washington DC. One of the famous lobbying firms is Gerald Cassidy which recently registered more corporations as its clients. One of the impact of the thousands of the lobbyists in the city is increased bribery especially to lawmakers and court regulators ( Sraeel, 1990).

The billions of dollars earned every year have attracted lucrative business of lobbying industry. Through the data disclosed from records showing lobbying expenditures, it could be noticed that over $3.5 billion dollars are the estimated lobbying expenses. This activity drops greatly when the congress gridlocked for instance during summer. This indicates that most of the expenditures involve bribing the congressmen and the Court Representatives. Each time there is a change in control of legislature from one of the political parties in the USA to another, such as from Democrats to Republicans, the lobbying business is affected immensely.

Lobbying has been one hindrance in the implementations of the immigrant policy and so many other policies. Various corporations and other advocacy groups and end up interacting with officials in the government and the Congress to influence decisions which are being made to lead policy making. This promotes self-interests at the expense of the general public good. Although lobbying is recognized by the American Constitution, it is perceived by many people such as the journalists as interference to the process of making public policies. However, it has become part of the integral process of making decisions (Jones, 1998). Normally, individuals and business are normally involved in lobbying activities in case some laws and regulations created are not favorable to their activities. As much as they are allowed to meet to make case with the Congress and lawmakers whom they believe can easily be influenced or be sympathizers, there are rules and regulations which they must adhere to ( ‘Lobbying’ Becomes Pervasive, 2010).









How Is The Agenda Set?. (n.d.). How Is The Agenda Set?. Retrieved January 8, 2014, from

Biggs, S., & Helms, L. B. (2007). The practice of American public policymaking. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.

Jones, M. (1998, January). Why is this man laughing and the Microsoftnetwork. Mother Jones Magazine,Vol. 23, No. 1, 88.

Sraeel, H. (1990, March 1). Spectacular lobbies: where business is pleasure from the ground up.. Buildings, -.

‘Lobbying’ Becomes Pervasive Part of US Government Policymaking (2010) News/USA ;Voice ofAmerica Retrieved on January 9, 2014 from‘Lobbying’ Becomes Pervasive Part of US Government Policymaking–lobbying-integral-part-of-american-policymaking-101323404/173432.html



Demand and supply









Student Name

Institution Name







Scenario 1

Overproduction of coffee resulted to increased supply in the market which surpassed the customers’ demand. According to the law of demand and supply, increased supply will result to decreased demand of the product in the market, holding all the other factors constant (Editorial Board, n.d). Initially, the prices of coffee were high which enticed many farmers to increase their production levels. However, this move pushed the prices down resulting to the current scenario. Gourmet coffee house came into existence at a period of decreasing prices but they were able to flourish through using various strategies. The company target higher income consumers in order to increase its profitability. In addition, it offers high quality coffee through offering the taste and preferences of its customers. This has enabled it to charge higher prices in the midst of low wholesale prices. Although the wholesale prices of coffee are low, retailers are able to charge higher prices through differentiating their products. This occurs because there are several factors that affect demand and supply of a product such as taste and preferences, government regulations among others.





Price of coffee in US$      P2

Q1       Q2

Quantity of coffee supplied in millions tonnes


P1 and P2 show the equilibrium price of coffee before and after overproduction respectively while Q1 and Q2 show the equilibrium quantity of coffee before and after overproduction respectively.

Scenario 2

Microeconomics focuses on the way individuals and businesses make decisions regarding the prices of goods and services and allocation of resources. It deals with the forces of demand and supply and other similar forces that determine prices of goods and services in the market. On the other hand, macroeconomics deals with the behaviors of the economy as a whole and not individuals or businesses (Mankiw, 2011). Macroeconomics focuses on factors such as GDP and the way they relate with the national income, unemployment, price levels, and the rate of growth. For example, macroeconomics looks at how decrease or increase in the net export can affect a country’s capital account.

Both microeconomics and macroeconomics deals with allocation of resources though at different levels. In microeconomic, individual businesses and companies, determine how they are going to allocate their resources based on the forces of demand supply. They allocate their resources in producing goods and services that are highly needed in the market in order to make profit. Market equilibrium is achieved when the quantity supplied is equal to the quantity demanded. The interaction of the demand and supply curve determines the equilibrium price and quantity in the market. However, this only occurs in free market where there is no government interference. Macroeconomics focuses on the total demand and supply of goods and services resulting to aggregate demand and supply. Aggregate demand comprises of total consumer demand, government spending, investment spending, and the net exports. Aggregate supply shows the sum of goods and services that are produced in a given economy on a particular price.

The realization of the fact that red wine lowers cholesterol is a microeconomic factor since it affects individuals and businesses. It is likely to increase the demand for red wine thus increasing its prices until equilibrium price and quantity are reached. This will result in the shift of supply curve in order to create a state of balance. Relaxing immigration laws is an example of macroeconomic principle since it affects the rate of unemployment in the country. Increased immigration will increase the supply of labor in the market causing its shift in the market. Increased supply of labor will lower the demand for labor in the market thus lowering the price of wages.












Editorial board (n.d). Macroeconomics, First edition. Monaco: Words of wisdom.

Mankiw, N.G. (2011). Principles of Macroeconomics, 6th Edition. Stanford: South-Western Cengage Learning.



1. The level curves for the solid, projected on an x-y plane :







Volume =


6.ITo help us integrate, we use the cylindrical co-ordinate,

The three coordinates of a point P are defined as:

  • The radial distance r is the Euclidean distance from the z axis to the point P.
  • The azimuth  is the angle between the reference direction on the chosen plane and the line from the origin to the projection of P on the plane.
  • The height x is the signed distance from the chosen plane to the point P.

Rotational Inertia: I=

Now radius  of each slice varies along h, r= a/h*x.

We switch the order of integration, determining the limits





Note that cubic roots, constrained to R are unique. We do not need two seta of parametrisation.


We can write the integral as

Limits of (u,v) : (-1/a ,1/a),

F(x) is unbounded.








It is straight forward to integrate f(x) given the limits on the plane on y over the height of cylinder


Volume =



4. The given integral can be represented as, by cros-substitution of variables as:

,dx=cos t, dy =-sint

McDonald’s is a fast growing MNC and to keep pace with the changing environment within and outside the organization it has had to work on its culture as in today’s time of cut-throat competition, it is getting tougher for organizations to stay in business, let alone expanding it. The company has achieved success in each of its endeavor and it has been made possible only because of strong culture it has made in the organization and which is seriously followed by each of its employees.


In McDonald’s the customer is placed the utmost importance and his needs are given the top priority. The employees have to remain polite and gentle to the customers and to their fellow workers as well. In its fast globalizing culture it has become essential for the organization to incorporate mannerisms which suit global environment and McDonald’s is no exception in this matter. The organization seriously believes that if food is served with the right attitude it not only appeals to the palate but also to the customer’s heart and that is what the company has tried to achieve through its organization culture. It is because of this that people of all ages prefer going to McDonald’s instead of going to any other place. McDonald’s has outlets across the world and people love it for its simplicity and service. The organization ad understood its strength and knows that for staying in the industry it has to continuously work on improving atmosphere in the organization itself so that the people remain contended and know that if they remain together they certainly can bring fortune for the company.


One change, that I observed at the workplace was that earlier people used to wear clothes of their choice but now uniform has been made compulsory and before making it a rule we were told about the reason that it brings unity and tends to put everyone at the same level and which eventually turns into increased output and better returns. The way all the employees were taken into confidence before implementing the rule was really commendable. In fact most of us agreed that it was crucial for us to do such a thing in order to get ahead as one organization because different clothes certainly bring complexes in people’s mind which does not go in favor of the organization as a whole. Many people feel these small matters are too trivial to leave any effect on profitability but this is not true because these small matters when put together shape the employees personality which reflects in his dealing with the customer or otherwise as well.





The Task Force Study collected data for McDonald’s 8,600 domestic restaurants only


McDonald’s Corporation. McDonald’s Packaging — The Facts.Oak Brook, IL: McDonald’s, 1990. p. 7

Construction safety

Question One



Right from the onset, it is very important to appreciate the fact that the construction industry is among the top considered accident prone industries in the industrial arena. In order for safety and especially employee safety to be kept and maintained high, the Occupation Safety and Health Act (California, 2005), which was formed about four decades ago, comes into play. The act serves to set out the protocols which can be of great value in offering guidance to industry players, especially in the construction and the general engineering sector. Basically, OSHA acts as the reference point when it comes to the roles and actions of supervision managers. This paper seeks to explore and offer informed responses to the following prompts regarding my position as a safety manager for a West Coast Construction Company (WCCC). This is discussed as follows:


Having made poor choices when faced with ethical dilemmas involving on-the job accidents, and as a safety manager, my actions at the site would be totally different having learnt from previous misjudgments. A new scenario in which confrontation would arise on the site, involving employees and a supervisor in which the former seem to be on the right would catch my professional and ethical attention. First and foremost, it would be very unethical for the supervisor to consciously break the OSHA rule by encouraging employees to violate them.

How I would determine a potential course of action in handling this situation

Despite the fact that the violation or the disregard of OSHA regulations would bring fortunes in terms of higher earnings, the safety of the employees as well as their welfare would be at stake. This would intern endanger the wellbeing of the employees and in the long run, the prowess of the West Coast construction company would deteriorate. Thus, the proper course of action would first entail legally considering the circumstances under which the proposed disregard to OSHA to ensure that the end is safe and healthy as per the provisions of OSHA.  Proper interpretation of the OSHA regulations would be critical for the construction industry is very sensitive in the context of safety. As such, the complaint from the employees is very important to be wisely considered. So to speak harmonizing the situation to create a balance not guided by greed of the bonus boom would be appropriate. This would entail hiring offering advice to hire more legible and experienced employees to cope with the deadline.  The baseline to arriving at the proper action would be a proper investigation and seeking a proper advice from the provisions of industrial and labor laws (California, 2005).

The Ethical guidelines I follow in making a decision on handling the issue

The best course of action is such a matter would bear close reference to the OSHA regulations which stipulates that all employees have the mandate of providing healthful and safe workplace environments.  To ensure this, the provisions set by OSHA aims to ensure that workplace standards are adhered to (United States, 2011). Thus, in the case whereby the supervisor is guided by greed of more money so as to force the employees to disregard the regulations, I would avert his rule and offer advice on the importance of work ethics to ensuring that the health and therefore the safety of the employees are held paramount in line with OSHAs regulations. Also, trying to create a balance between the West Coast construction company standards and OSHA’s would be an optimal idea of being ethically. Generally, employees’ opinions would be paramount bearing in mind that the employer ought to comply strictly with the OSHA regulations. In light of the boom, the pay rise and compensations are some of the strategies I would deploy (Baura, 2006).


The construction industry stands to be among the renowned hazardous industry and lack of ethics such as evident in bloom season would easily make supervisor and managers violate the workplace rules and standards as provided for by the OSHA, which has been in place since 1970. Therefore, decision making as well as judgments by managers in relations to employee complaints ought to be rational. As a safety manager, the cases of employees’ outcry regarding their workplace safety would always come first in my considerations.


Question 2



Equipment safety and workplace injury and illness prevention are among the key aspects of standards that the (OSHA) Act holds the key in the enforcement of its occupational safety doctrine. As such the Act stipulates that only certified and legally recognized personnel should handle the controls of machines and equipment during the working process. The act, under its Section 5 a sub-part 2 obliges the employer to conform to the promulgated rules as outlined, by maintaining health and safety standards (United States, 2011). In this regard, this paper seeks to address various prompts in which an employee tries to defy a senior’s rule that complicates the formers safety. This is as follows:


As highlighted above, an employee of a commercial shipping company differed with a senior’s opinion to operate a Forklift in light of anticipated higher income due to a then holiday season boom. As indicated, the employee reports the employer to a supervisor who in turn and inconsiderably threatens to fire the employee. The employee notified the facility union representative after which OSHA conducted inspections and accused the company of evident violations. Afterwards, the company fires the employee. The following section seeks to review:-

Whether the actions of the employee were appropriate

Right from the onset, it is a big YES that the employee was very observant and aware of his safety. Moreover, it is also logically valid to appreciate this employee to have upheld honesty and professional ethics by not opting to handle tasks in he was incapacitated in. This therefore confirms my strong opinion that the actions of the employee were appropriate. I first appreciate the fact that he addressed the matter at the phase, and following the appropriate chain of command (United States, 2011).

Most important to consider is the legal adherence to the OSHA regulations by the employee. Through his action of regularly reporting to the authority any matters that he felt worrying and comprising to his safety, he out rightly adheres to the sub-part of part a of Section 5 of the OSHA Act which stipulates that employees ought to fully adhere to stipulated occupational safety and health set standards, rules and regulations, not leaving behind the importance of the orders issued in pursuant to OSHA; which are especially applicable to their conduct and actions (United States, 2011). As well, the actions of the employee are acceptable and totally agreeable under the whistleblower portions of the OSHA Act, which outlines that the conduct of the employee ought to be legally sound and in line with OSHA regulations.  It is therefore from this conclusion that the next prompt is reviewed. This entails addressing on:

Whether the employer’s actions were appropriate

From a rational point of consideration as well as referring to the whistle blower portions of the OSHA Act, the actions of the employer were not appropriate at all. The employer only appeared inconsiderate of the risks placed in the wish to have the inexperienced employee to operate the Forklift in moving the pallets. First and foremost, work ethics are clearly missing from the point that the cries of the employee are never taken from the regulations of OSHA and more so, the statements of the supervisor, ‘stick to orders or go find job elsewhere’ are practically irritating (Ferguson Publishing, 2009). Work ethics is missing due to what can be appropriate to term as greed.

Clearly, the motive of the employer is to make more income regardless of the employees’ welfare. This is not ethical and besides, a lot danger lies behind the actions of the inexperienced forklift operator (Baura, 2006).

The climax of the employer’s ill-professional actions is firing the employee even after the union and confirms violations of the latter are side after investigations. Also, considering the whistleblower portion, the employer acts unprofessional, harshly and hastily.  Generally, the employer fails to conform to sections 5 through section 17 and hefty fines and compensations are applicable to the employee as appropriate.


From the above highlight, it is valid to consider the employee as professionally sound, ethically concerned and very persistent in attaining professional fairness through fair safety considerations. He follows the right chain of command and in line with OSHA’s regulations. On the other hand, the employer is inconsiderate and fits to be fined and disciplined due to non-conformance to OSHA’s regulations.











Baura, G. D. (2006). Engineering ethics: An industrial perspective. Boston: Elsevier Academic Press.

California. (2005). User’s guide to Cal/OSHA: California Occupational Safety & Health Program. San Francisco: Division of Occupational Safety & Health, Dept. of Industrial Relations [State of California.

Ferguson Publishing. (2009). Professional ethics and etiquette. New York: Ferguson.

United States. (2011). OSHA. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.